Hayvan Beslemenin Nihai Ürünü Dışkı ve Gaz Üretim Potansiyeli

Sabri YURTSEVEN
2.047 2.442

Öz


Dışkılama sindirim sonucu sıvı ve yarı katı atıkların elimine edildiği en son sindirim faaliyetidir. Dışkı idrarbileşimi veya dışkının posa kısmının iyi okunması ruminantların sindirim fonksiyonu, rumen fermantasyonu vehayvanın genel sağlık durumu hakkında önemli bilgiler sağlayabilir. Dışkı aynı zamanda et, süt ve yumurta gibihayvansal ürünlerin bir yan ürünü olarak görülebilir. Dışkı küresel ısınma açısından önemli bir gaz üretimpotansiyeline de (özelikle NO ve daha az CH) sahiptir ve üretimi yem, su tüketimine bağlı olmakla birliktesindirim sistemindeki akışın bozulması ile önemli bir azalma gösterir. Hayvan ve rasyon arasındaki ilişkiyi anlamaaçısından dışkı ve hayvan sağlığı ve performansı arasındaki ilişkiyi bilmek faydalıdır.

Anahtar kelimeler


Hayvan besleme, dışkı, nitröz oksit, nitrojen oksit, metan

Tam metin:

PDF (English)


Referanslar


Anonim, 2012a. Resource Assessment for Livestock and Agro-Industrial Wastes – Turkey http://www. globalmethane.org/documents/ag_turkey_res_assess ment.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 31.12.2012)

Anonim, 2012b. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/ consumer/quickref/fertilizer/nutrient_content.html. NC State University (Erişim tarihi: 31.12.2012)

ASABE. 2005. Manure Production and Characteristics. ASABE Standard D384.2. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. St. Joseph, MI.

Bannink, A., Valk, H., Van Vuuren. A. M. 1999. Intake and Excretion of Sodium, Potassium, and Nitrogen and the Effects on Urine Production by Lactating Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1008–1018.

Benchaar, C., Greathead, H. 2011. Essential Oils and Opportunities to Mitigate Enteric Methane Emissions from Ruminants. Anim. Sci. and Technol. 166-167:338-355.

Casada, M.E. Safley Jr, L.M. 1990. Global Methane Emissions from Livestock and Poultry Manure. A Report Submitted to the U.S.E.P.A. Washington, D.C.

Cardenas, L.M., Chadwick, D., Scholefield, D., Fychan, R., Marley, C.L., Jones, R, Bol, R., Well, R., Vallejo, A., 2007. The Effect of Diet Manipulation on Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Manure Application to Incubated Grassland Soils. Atmospheric Environment, Pp:7096-7101.

Chadwick, D. R., Pain, B.F., Brookman, S. K. E. 2000. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions Following Application of Animal Manures to Grassland. J. Environ Qual. 29:277-287.

Cieaslak, A. 2003. Impact on Rumen Fermentation When Feeding Diets Supplemented with Rapeseed and Linseed Oil. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 12, 102.

Clemens, J., Trimborn, M., Weiland, P., Amon, B. 200 Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Slurry. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 112:171-177. Ellis, J. L., Bannink, A., Dijkstra, J., Parsons, A. J., Rasmussen, S. E., Edrards, G.R., Kebreab, E., France, J. 2009. A Modeling Approach to Evaluate the Feeding of High Sugar Grasses to Cattle: Nitrogen and Methane. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 89:532Freibauer, A. 2003. Regionalised Inventory of Biogenic GHG

Emissions from European Agriculture. European Journal Agronomy. 19:135-160 Helander, I. M., Alakomi, H. L., Latva-Kala, K., Mattila-Sandholm, T., Pol, I., Smid, E. J., Gorris, L. G. M., Von Wright, A. 1998. Characterization of the Action of Selected Essential Oil Components on Gram-Negative Bacteria. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 3590–3595.

Hof,G., Vervoorn, M.D., Lenaers, P.J., Tamminga, S., 19 Milk Urea Nitrogen as a Tool to Monitor the Protein Nutrition of Dairy Urea Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:3333-3340.

Holter, J. B., Urban, J. W. E. 1992. Water Partitioning and Intake Prediction in Dry and Lactating Holstein Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1472–1479.

IPCC, 2007. Climate change. 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IPCC. 2001. Third Assessment Report - Climate Change 200 Climate Change 200 http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_tar/?src =/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/247.htm (Erişim tarihi: 02013)

James, T., D. Meyer, E. Esparza, DePeters, E. J.. PerezMonti. H. 1999. Effects of Dietary Nitrogen Manipulation on Ammonia Volatilization from Manure from Holstein Heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2430–2439.

Kissinger, W.E., Koelsch, R.K., Erickson, G.E., Klopfenstein, T.J. 2007. Characteristics of Manure Harvested from Beef Cattle Feedlots. Applied Engineering In Agriculture, 23:357-365.

Knowlton, K.F., Wilkerson, W.A., Casper, D.P., Mertens, D.R. 2010. Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:407–412 Kohn, R. 2012. Use of Animal Nutrition to Manage Nitrogen

Emissions from Animal Agriculture. University of Maryland, College Park. http://nutrients.umd.edu/reprints/04.mnc.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 4.01.2013)

Kuhn, E. 1998. Kofermentation. Arbeitspapier 249. Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft (KTBL) Darmstadt.

Külling, D.R., Dohme, F., Menzi,H., Sutter, F., Lischer, P., Kreuzer, M. 2002. Methane Emissions of Differently Feed Dairy Cows and Corresponding Methane and Nitrogen Emissions from their Manure during Storage. Environment Monitoring and Assessment. 79:129-150.

Lambert, R. J. W., Skandamis, P. N., Coote, P. J., Nychas, G. J. E. 2001. A Study of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mode of Action of Oregano Essential Oil, Thymol and Carvacrol. J. Appl. Microbiol., 91: 453–462.

Mathot, M., Decruyenaere, V., Stilmant, D., Lambert, R. 2012. Effect of Cattle Diet and Manure Storage Conditions on Carbon Dioxide, Methane and N 2 O Emissions from Tie-Stall Barns and Stored Solid Manure. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment. 148:134-144.

Miller, L.A., Moorby, J. M., Davies, D.R., Humphreys, M.O., Scollan, N.D., MacRae, J.C., Theodorou, M.K. 2001. Increased Concentration of Water Soluble Carbohydrate in Perennial Rye Grass (L. Perenne): Milk Production from Late Lactation Dairy Cows. Grass Forage Sci., 56:383-394.

Miron, J., Yosef, E., Nikbachat, M., Zenau, A., Zuckerman, E., Solomon, R., Nadler, A. 2011. Fresh Dairy Manure as a Substitute for Chemical Fertilization in Growing Wheat Forage; Effects on Soil Properties, Forage Yield and Composition Weed Contamination, and Hay Intake and Digestibility by Sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tecnol. 168:179-187.

NRC. 2002. The Scientific Basis for Estimating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

Reynolds, C. K., Tyrrell, H. F. Reynolds, P.J. 1991. Effects of Diet Forage-To-Concentrate Ratio and Intake on Energy-Metabolism in Growing Beef Heifers - Net Nutrient Metabolism by Visceral Tissues. J. Nutr. 121:1004-1015.

Tamminga, S. 1992. Nutrition Management of Dairy Cows as a Contribution to Pollution Control. J. Dairy Sci. 75:345–357.

Wattiaux, M. A., Karg, K. L. 2004. Protein Level for Alfalfa and Corn Silage-Based Diets: II. Nitrogen Balance and Manure Characteristics. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3492–3502.

Weiske, A., Vabitsch, A., Olesen, J.E., Schelde, K., Michel, J., Friedrich, R., Kaltschimitt, M. 2006. Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in European Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 112:221Weiss, W. P. 2004. Factors Affecting Manure Excretion by Dairy Cows. Pages 11–20 in Cornell Nutr. Conf., Syracuse, NY. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Weiss, W.P., Willet, L.B., St-Pierre, N., Borger, D.C., McKelvey, T.R., Wyatt,D.J. 2009. Varying Forage Type, Metabolizable Protein Concentration and Carbohydrate Source Affects Manure Excretion Manure Ammonia and N Metabolism of Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:5607-5619.

Weiss, W.P., St-Pierre, N. 2010. Feeding Strategies to Decrease Manure Output of Dairy Cows. WCDS. Advances in Dairy Technology. 22:229-237. Wikipeia, 20 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Defecation. (Erişim tarihi: 1.05.2012)

Yamulki, S. 2006. Effects of Straw Addition on Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Stored Farmyard Manures. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 112:140-145.

Yurtseven, S., Çetin, M., Ozturk, I., Can, A., Boga, M., Şahin, H., Turkoglu, H. 2009. Effect of Different Feeding Method on Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Milk Yield and Composition of Lactating Awassi Sheep. Asian Journal of Anim. and Vet. Adv. 4(6):278-287.

Yurtseven, S., Ozturk, I. 2009. Influence of Two Sources of Cereals (Corn or Barley) in Free Choice Feeding on Diet Selection, Milk Production Indices and Gaseous Products (CH 4 and CO 2 ) in Lactating Sheep. Asian Journal of Anim. and Vet. Adv. (4):1